Thursday, October 27, 2005

Brief History

The city history dates from 1488 when the first reference to Bandung exists. But from ancient archeological finds, we know the city was home to Australopithecus, Java Man. These people lived on the banks of the Cikapundung in north Bandung, and on the shores of the Great Lake of Bandung. Flint artifacts can still be found in the Upper Dago area and the Geological Museum has displays and fragments of skeletal remains and artifacts.
The Sundanese were a pastoral people farming the fertile regions of Bandung. They developed a lively oral tradition which includes the still practiced Wayang Golek puppet theatre, and many musical forms. "There is a city called Bandung, comprising 25 to 30 houses," wrote Juliaen de Silva in 1614.
The achievements of European adventurers to try their luck in the fertile and prosperous Bandung area, led eventually to 1786 when a road was built connecting Jakarta, Bogor, Cianjur and Bandung. This flow was increased when in 1809 Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands, ordered Governor General H.W. Daendels, to increase defences in Java against English. The vision was a chain of military defense units and a supply road between Batavia and Cirebon. But this coastal area was marsh and swamp, and it was easier to construct the road further south, across the Priangan highlands.
The Groote Postweg (Great Post Road) was built 11 miles north of the then capital of Bandung. With his usual terseness, Daendels ordered the capital to be relocated to the road. Bupati Wiranatakusumah II chose a site south of the road on the western bank of the Cikapundung, near a pair of holy wells, Sumur Bandung, supposedly protected by the ancient goddess Nyi Kentring Manik. On this site he built his dalem (palace) and the alun-alun (city square). Following traditional orientations, Mesjid Agung (The Grand Mosque) was placed on the western side, and the public market on the east. His residence and Pendopo (meeting place) was on the south facing the mystical mountain of Tangkuban Perahu. Thus was The Flower City born.
Around the middle of the l9th Century, South American cinchona (quinine), Assam tea, and coffee was introduced to the highlands. By the end of the century Priangan was registered as the most prosperous plantation area of the province. In 1880 the rail line connecting Jakarta and Bandung was completed, and promised a 2 1/2 hour trip from the blistering capital in Jakarta to Bandung.
With this life changed in Bandung, hotels, cafes, shops sprouted up to serve the planters who either came down from their highland plantations or up from the capital to frolic in Bandung. The Concordia Society was formed and with its large ballroom was the social magnet for weekend activities in the city. The Preanger Hotel and the Savoy Homann were the hotels of choice. The Braga became the promenade, lined with exclusive Europeans shops.
With the railroad, light industry flourished. Once raw plantation crops were sent directly to Jakarta for shipment to Europe, now primary processing could be done efficiently in Bandung. The Chinese who had never lived in Bandung in any number came to help run the facilities and vendor machines and services to the new industries. Chinatown dates from this period.
In the first years of the present century, Pax Neerlandica was proclaimed, resulting in the passing of military government to a civilian one. With this came the policy of decentralization to lighten the administrative burden of the central government. And so Bandung became a municipality in 1906.
This turn of events left a great impact on the city. City Hall was built at the north end of Braga to accommodate the new government, separate from the original native system. This was soon followed by a larger scale development when the military headquarters was moved from Batavia to Bandung around 1920. The chosen site was east of City Hall, and consisted of a residence for the Commander in Chief, offices, barracks and military housing.
By the early 20's the need for skilled professionals drove the establishment of the technical high school that was sponsored by the citizens of Bandung. At the same time the plan to move the capital of the Netherlands Indies from Batavia to Bandung was already mature, the city was to be extended to the north. The capital district was placed in the northeast, an area that had formerly been rice fields, and a grand avenue was planned to run for about 2.5 kilometers facing the fabled Tangkuban Perahu volcano with Gedung Sate at the south end, and a colossal monument at the other. on both sides of this grand boulevard buildings would house the various offices of the massive colonial government.
Along the east bank of the Cikapundung River amidst natural scenery was the campus of the Technische Hoogeschool, dormitories and staff housing. The old campus buildings and its original landscaping reflect the genius of its architect Henri Maclain Pont. The southwestern section was reserved for the municipal hospital and the Pasteur Institute, in the neighborhood of the old quinine factory. These developments were carefully planned down to the architectural and maintenance details. These years shortly before World War II were the golden ones in Bandung and those alluded to today as Bandung Tempoe Doeloe.
The war years did little to change the city of Bandung, but in 1946, facing the return of the Colonial Dutch to Indonesia, citizens chose to burn down their beloved Bandung in what has become known as Bandung Lautan Api, Bandung Ocean of Fire. Citizens fled to the southern hills and overlooking the "ocean of flames" penned "Halo Halo Bandung," the anthem promising their return. Political unrest colored the early years of Independence and consequently people flocked to Bandung where safety was. The population skyrocketed from 230,000 in 1940 to 1 million by 1961. Economic prosperity following the oil boom in the 70's pushed this further so that by 1990 there were 2 million inhabitants.
Present day Bandung is thriving. As home to more than 25 schools of higher education, there is a vibrant collegiate atmosphere. The ITB still reigns supreme in Indonesian education; the Universities of Padjadjaran and Parahyangan receive students from all over the country. The National Hotel Institute, the National Railway Institute, the Senior Officers Military Institute, the Women's Police Academy, grace the city. The excellent fine arts offerings have produced an artist colony of great repute and excitment. The textile industry is the largest in the country and contributes to a vigorous business climate.
In 1987 the city extended its administrative boundaries toward a Greater Bandung Plan (Bandung Raya) Plans for the city include higher concentrations of development outside the current city centre, in an attempt to dilute some of the population density in the old core. These days Bandung Raya is still years ahead, yet the land has suffered deeply. Commercial activities run amok, God only knows who can take control. The city core is practically uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is now bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.

Bandung, City of Flowers, is the provincial capital of West Java and Indonesia' s third largest city. Known in colonial times as the Paris of Java because of its European ambiance and sophistication, Bandung shares with Miami a fine legacy of Tropical Deco architecture dating from the 1920's.
Situated on a plateau in the beautiful Parahayangan mountains, Bandung's pleasant climate and lush surroundings have offered an escape from the heat of the lowlands since the mid 19th century when it was the heart of the region's most prosperous plantation area. Host to the historic Asia Africa conference in 1955, Bandung is now a center of higher education ,commerce and aircraft industry which despite its modern amenities still retains much of its colonial era charm.
Bandung is also renowned for its shopping, particularly for shoes, textiles, clothing and denims which are found in the colourful Jeans street . Easily reached from Jakarta by train , road or air (the scenic train trip is recommended), Bandung, with its cool mountain air is a popular second stop for those visiting the national capital and an essential stay-over for travellers enroute through Java.

Seperti yang sudah diketahui Bandung merupakan satu-satunya kota di Indonesia yang memiliki lebih dari satu sebutan seperti Bandung adalah a Paradise in Exile ( pada abad 18 ), Bandung Exelcior (tahun 1856), The Sleeping Beauty (tahun 1884), De Bloem van Bersteden (abad 19 yang berarti Bunga Pegunungan), PARISJ VAN JAVA (tahun 1920), Intellectuelle Centurm Van Indie (tahun 1921), Staatkundig Centrum Van Indie (tahun 1923), Europe in de Tropen (tahun 1930), Bandung Kota Kembang, Bandung Ibu Kota Asia-Afrika (Nasser tahun 1955), Bandung Atlas dan sekarang Bandung Berhiber.

Nama-nama tersebut diberikan untuk menggambarkan betapa indahnya Bandung di masa silam atau dalam bahasa Belanda 'Den Goeden Ouden Tijd’ dan seterusnya. Bandung selalu dihubungkan dengan sesuatu yang indah, udara yang sejuk dan bersahabat.


1. Lambang kota Bandung ditetapkan dengan Peraturan Daerah Kota besar Bandung tahun 1953, tertanggal 8 Juni 1953, yang diijinkan dengan Keputusan Presiden tertanggal 28 april 1953 No. 104 dan diundangkan dalam Berita Propinsi Jawa Barat tertanggal 28 Agustus 1954 No. 4 lampiran No. 6 Lambang tersebut bertokoh PERISAI yang berbentuk JANTUNG. Perisai tersebut terbagi dalam dua bagian oleh sebuah BALOK- LINTANG mendaatar bertajuk empat buah, yang berwarna HITAM dengan pelisir berwarna PUTIH(PERAK) pada pinggir sebelah atasnya:

1. bagian atas latar KUNING (EMAS) dengan lukisan sebuah GUNUNG berwaarna HIJAU yang bertumpu pada blok-lintang daaan
2. bagian bawah latar PUTIH(PERAK) dengan lukisan empat bidaang jalur mendatar berombak yang berwarna BIRU.

Di bawah perisai itu terlukis sehelai PITA berwarna KUNING (EMAS) yang melambai pada kedua ujungnya, Pada pita itu tertulis dengan huruf-huruf besar latin berwarna HITAM amsal dalam bahasa KAWI, yang berbunyi GEMAH RIPAH WIBAWA MUKTI.

2. Sebagai tokoh lambang itu diambil bentuk perisai atau tameng, yang dikenal kebudayaan dan peradaban sebagai senjata dalam perjuangan untuk mencapai sesuatu tujuandengan melindungi diri. Perkakas perjuangan yang demikian itu dijadikan lambang yang mempunyai arti menahan segala mara bahaya dan kesukaran.


Berarti : kesejahteraan, keluhungan.

Hitam (sabel)

Berarti : kokoh, tegak, kuat.

Hijau (Sinopel)

Berarti : kemakmuran sejuk

Putih (perak)

Berarti : kesucian

Biru (azuur)

Berarti : kesetiaan

Gemah ripah wibawa mukti

Berarti : tanah subur rakyat makmur


Bendera yang digunakan oleh Kotamadya Bandung adalah berdasarkan Surat Keputusan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Sementara Kota Besar Bandung tanggal 8 Juni 1953 No. 9938/53.

Bentuk bendera tersebut adalah seperti yang tercantum pada diktum Keputusan tersebut diatas sebagai berikut :

1. Bendera yang dipergunakan oleh Kota Besar Bandung dan tiga bidang jalur mendatar, masing –masing berturut-turut dari atas kebawah berwarna HIJAU, KUNING dan BIRU
2. Perbandingan-perbandingan antara lebarnya dan jalur-jalur tersebut dibawah huruf a urutn dari atas kebawah adalah 2:1:1;
3. Perbandingan antara panjang dan lebarnya berbeda itu 7:5.

Cikal Bakal Kabupaten Bandung, semula berada di Karapyak atau

Gerbang Upakarti

Bojongasih di tepi sungai Cikapundung, dekat muaranya yaitu Sungai Citarum. Nama Karapyak kemudian berganti menjadi Citeureup. Bahkan nama itu hingga kini tetap abadi menjadi salah satu nama Desa di Dayeuhkolot. Bupati pertamanya adalah Wiraangunangun (1641-1670).

Pada masa Bupati Wiranatakusumah II (1794-1829) Ibukota Kabupaten Bandung dipindahkan dari Karapyak (Dayeuhkolot) ke pinggir Sungai Cikapundung atau Alun-alun Bandung sekarang. Pemindahan Ibukota tersebut adalah atas perintah Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda "Deandels", tepatnya pada 25 Mei 1810. Alasan pemindahan Ibukota, karena dinilai daerah baru tersebut akan memberikan prospek baik terhadap perkembangan wilayah itu, karena saat itu Deandels yang mendapat julukan "Mas Galak" tengah membuat jalan dari Anyer ke Panarukan, yang kebetulan melewati tatar Priangan atau Kotamadya Bandung pada saat sekarang ini.

Sewaktu jembatan penyebrangan Sungai Cikapundung selesai dibuat, syahdan maka Deandels-lah orang pertama yang menyebranginya. Lewat beberapa ratus meter kemudian ia menancapkan tongkat kayu dan berkata "Coba usahakan, bila aku datang kembali ke tempat ini, telah dibangun sebuah kota". Konon pula, bekas tongkat kayu ditancapkan itu dijadikan Kilometer Nol Kota Bandung.

Adalah Bupati Wiranatakusumah IV dinilai sebagai seorang pamong yang progresif, dialah peletak master plan yang disebut Negroij Bandung. Ia pada tahun 1850 mendirikan pendopo Kabupaten Bandung (sekarang rumah dinas Walikota Bandung, persis di depan Alun-alun Bandung) dan Mesjid Agung Bandung. Ia juga memprakarsai pembangunan sekolah raja (pendidikan guru) dan pendidikan sekolah para menak.

Atas jasa-jasanya di segala bidang Wiranatakusumah IV mendapat penghargaan dari Pemerintah Kolonial Belanda berupa bintang jasa. Kemudian karena penghargaan inilah, rakyat Kabupaten Bandung selalu menyebut Bupati yang satu ini, dengan nama Dalem Bintang. Bupati yang populer di hati rakyat ini kemudian diganti oleh Raden Adipati Kusumadilaga.
Pada masa Bupati Kusumadilaga, tepatnya 17 Mei 1884 di Kabupaten Bandung mulai masuk jalan Kereta Api. Ibukota Kabupaten Bandung-pun mulai ramai. Penghuninya bukan saja hanya pribumi, namun orang Eropa dan Bangsa Cina terus berdatangan, yang dengan demikian maka semakin majulah perekonomian Kabupaten Bandung pada saat itu.
Pada masa R A A Martanegara (1893-1918), yaitu pada 21 Februari 1906, Kota Bandung sebagai Ibukota Kabupaten Bandung, statusnya berubah menjadi Gemeente (Kotapradja), dengan pejabat Walikota pertama adalah Tuan B Coops. Sejak itulah kota Bandung resmi terlepas dari Pemerintahan Kabupaten Bandung hingga sampai dengan saat sekarang ini.
Di jaman Republik, pada saat pmerintahan Kabupaten Bandung dipegang oleh Bupati R H Lily Sumantri, terjadi peristiwa penting, yaitu rencana pemindahan Ibukota Kabupaten Bandung yang semula berlokasi di Kota Bandung ke daerah Baleendah di wilayah hukum Kabupaten Bandung. Kepindahan ini disebut sebagai kembalinya ibukota ke tapak cikal bakal Kabupaten Bandung pertama semasa Tumenggung Wiraangunangun. Dalam perkembangannya, atas beberapa pertimbangan, fisis, geografis daerah Baleendah tidak memungkinkan untuk menjadi Ibukota, maka Ibukota diboyong ke lokasi baru, yaitu di Desa Pamekaran Kecamatan Soreang. Diatas lahan seluas 24 hektar, kini berdiri kompleks perkantoran Pemerintah Kabupaten Bandung, dibangun dengan gaya arsitektur tradisional Priangan.

Kompleks Perkantoran Pemda


Pada Masa Bupati H.U. Hatta D. pembangunan kompleks perkantoran dirampungkan, bahkan terus dibangun fasilitas lain seperti Mesjid Agung Soreang, Kantor DPRD Kabupaten Bandung,Kantor-kantor Dinas, Lembaga lain fasilitas olah raga, hingga monumen perjuangan, serta penghijauan yang menambah asri kompleks tersebut.